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Infectious Disease

Infectious Disease provides a unique and scientific understanding of the complex world of infectious diseases, and our experience spans the entire category.

Guidelines for Healthcare Facilities Management in Abkhazia

Ramaz Mitaishvili, M.D.
Glendale, CA

These guidelines were created to help health care facilities maximize staffed beds, maximize resources available, and decrease disease transmission within the facility during an influenza pandemic.
Staffing: One of the greatest challenges in a pandemic response is expected to be the management of high patient load in the face of reduced staff. Many hospitals already have high census protocols and emergency preparedness plans that may be adapted to pandemic planning. Specific preventive interventions may reduce staff absenteeism during a pandemic.

Read more: Guidelines for Healthcare Facilities Management in Abkhazia

WHO Studies Tamiflu Resistance After New Report

The World Health Organisation (WHO) said on Tuesday it was studying whether some seasonal flu viruses may be resistant to Tamiflu, after a study showed high levels of resistance to the widely-used drug in parts of Europe.

Read more: WHO Studies Tamiflu Resistance After New Report

Pediatric Deaths From Influenza

MRSA Coinfection Spark CDC Advisory


Healthcare professionals should be alert to the possibility of bacterial coinfection among children hospitalized with influenza and request bacterial cultures for those who are severely ill or suspected of having community-acquired pneumonia, according to a clinician communication sent today from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Read more: Pediatric Deaths From Influenza

Proposed Vaccination in Abkhazia

Ramaz Mitaishvili, MD
Glendale, USA



Annual Vaccination Campaign


Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccine Distribution

PCDCP will be responsible for bulk ordering vaccine from manufacturers, and receipt, storage, handling, packing, shipping, and disposal of all publicly purchased vaccines in Abkhazia. Vaccines are ordered and stored centrally at the vaccine storage room, packaged and transported by Fed Ex. All vaccine storage units reside in a room that is kept locked after hours. All refrigerators that contain vaccine are equipped with locks. Temperatures are monitored twice daily. Standard operating procedures to safeguard vaccines during power outages include the availability of backup generators for the power refrigerators in the event of a power outage. Units located at the PCDCP vaccine depot must backup power generators, in the event of a power outage or refrigerator malfunction.

Read more: Proposed Vaccination in Abkhazia

HIV Infection Increases Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Risk

By Will Boggs, MD
Patients infected with HIV have an increased risk of developing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), according to a report in the November 15th issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Read more: HIV Infection Increases Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Risk

Guidelines Updated for Antiretroviral Therapy in Teens and Adults With HIV-1 Infection

News Author: Laurie Barclay, MD
CME Author: Hien T. Nghiem, MD
On December 1, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) issued updated guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in teens and adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

Read more: Guidelines Updated for Antiretroviral Therapy in Teens and Adults With HIV-1 Infection

Science and Sensibility: An Interview With Professor Rolf M. Zinkernagel

Science and Sensibility: An Interview With Professor Rolf M. Zinkernagel, Nobel Prize Winner for Medicine 1996

Interviewers: Hrishikesh Satish Kulkarni; Ajit H. Goenka, MBBS
Interviewee: Rolf M. Zinkernagel, MD, PhD
Introduction

Science is perceived to be the panacea to many of the world's problems. No wonder then that scores of brilliant minds are busy applying time-tested scientific tools to find a sustainable solution to problems, such as HIV and tuberculosis -- problems that may challenge the very existence of humankind unless they are reined in within time. In this context, when Rolf M. Zinkernagel, MD, PhD, the pioneering immunologist, suggests that the ultimate solution may not be through scientific research, it makes you sit up and listen.

Read more: Science and Sensibility: An Interview With Professor Rolf M. Zinkernagel

Abkhazia: Influenza control

Ramaz Mitaishvili, MD

Infection Control: Influenza viruses are spread from person-to-person, primarily through inhalation of small particle aerosols and large droplet infection. Influenza can be highly contagious, particularly among persons without pre-existing antibodies against influenza, such as young children during normal influenza seasons and anyone during a pandemic. The typical incubation period of influenza is two days (range one to four days). Viral shedding, and the period during which a person may be infectious to others, generally peaks on the second day of symptoms, but may begin the day before symptoms start, and typically lasts five to seven days in adults. Young children and immunocompromised persons may shed virus and be infectious for three weeks or longer. The amount of virus shed and the length of time of viral shedding may be prolonged during initial infection with a new influenza subtype.

Read more: Abkhazia: Influenza control

Strategies to increase the availability of hospital beds

Ramaz Mitaishvili, MD 

  1. Review policies for scheduling elective procedures and develop guidelines and contingency plans to limit elective admissions and surgery. Decreasing elective utilization of health care facilities during a pandemic will increase bed availability, allow redistribution of staff and equipment, and may decrease the elective patient’s exposure to influenza infected persons. Consideration should be given to performing any necessary surgeries in a surgical ambulatory care center to reduce the likelihood of exposure to influenza infected patients in hospital.

Read more: Strategies to increase the availability of hospital beds

Guidelines for Healthcare Facilities Management

Ramaz Mitaishvili, MD
These guidelines were created to help health care facilities maximize staffed beds, maximize resources available, and decrease disease transmission within the facility during an influenza pandemic. Staffing: One of the greatest challenges in a pandemic response is expected to be the management of high patient load in the face of reduced staff. Many hospitals already have high census protocols and emergency preparedness plans that may be adapted to pandemic planning. Specific preventive interventions may reduce staff absenteeism during a pandemic. Health care personnel are among priority groups for antiviral chemoprophylaxis and vaccination. However, available supply of antivirals likely will be far less than the need and the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis may be compromised by antiviral resistance. If available, vaccine is also likely to be in short supply early in a pandemic.

Read more: Guidelines for Healthcare Facilities Management

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