In the year 1918, Georgia restored her independence from Russia. This became possible as a result of World War I and disintegration of the Russian Empire due to its failure to withstand a tremendous pressure endorsed by the war effort.
During its three years of independence, Georgia’s moderate socialist leadership was rather successful in the establishment of a democracy-track society. However, the development of democratic processes in the First Republic faced a number of challenges that included involvement in military conflicts with Turkey, Armenia, as well as the “Reds” and the “Whites” of Southern Russia, economic blockade by Western powers, delay of international recognition, internal conflicts and subversive activities of local Bolsheviks encouraged by the Bolshevik regime in Moscow. By the end of February, 1920, an alliance was formed between the Kemalist government of Turkey and the Soviet leadership of Russia. The new allies required a stable land-bridge between the two countries. In order to achieve that goal, the three independent states of the South Caucasus - namely Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia - were to be taken over and partitioned between Soviet Russia and Turkey.
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